Rwanda | Sobanukirwa n ibijyanye n ubucukuzi bwa Peteroli

Rwanda | Icukuriro rya Deep Water Horison (photo internet)

Icukuriro rya Deep Water Horison (photo internet)

Kugira ngo bamenye aho peteroli iherereye hifashishwa ikoranabuhanga rihanitse ndetse n’inzobere zabyigiye. Si buri wese rero wavumbura aho peteroli iherereye. Uburyo bukoreshwa humvirizwa ahaherereye peteroli burasa haba kubutaka ndetse no mu mazi

Ku butaka bakoresha amakamyo atera umutingito aho ageze. Ayo makamyo aba akurura twa romoroke. Utu twa romoroke na two tuba twubatsemo, imbere, udukono turimo utuntu duto duto tw’utubumbe tumeze nk’utubiye dufasha mu gupima ahari peteroli. Ubwitsindagire iyo kamyo iba ishyira ku butaka bw’aho iri buramanuka maze bukagera kure mu kuzimu. Uko gutingita rero kw’iyo kamyo rero, kumvwa hakoreshejwe twa mikoro duto cyane ariko dufata amajwi ku buryo buhambaye kurusha izindi mikoro dusanzwe tuzi.

Mu mazi rero ho aho gukoresha ikamyo bakoresha ubwato. Ubwo bwato buba bufite ibyangombwa byose nk’ibyo twabonye baha ikamyo ku butaka.

Ubutumwa butanzwe na twa tu micro bwakirwa kandi bukanatunganywa na mudasobwa kabuhariwe. Mudasobwa kabuhariwe zirenga 2000 nibura nizo zikoreshwa mu gukora iyo mibare. Nyuma y’iyo mibare rero kuri za mudasobwa habonekaho ibishushanyo bitatu byerekana ubwoko ndetse n’ubukomezi bw’ibitare bagomba kumena bacukura mbere yo kugera kuri ya petroli. Aha ni naho kandi bahita babonera n’ ubwoko bwa peteroli bagiye gucukura.

Mu mazi ho rero nyuma y’ibyo byose twavuze haruguru, bahita bubaka icyuma kinini gishashe  kimeze nk’ikidasari cyangwa cya kiraro bahagararaho kikambukiranya umugezi, maze bakacyubakaho uruganda rufite amatiyo manini amanuka mu butaka buri munsi y’amazi azajya azamurayo ya peteroli mu gihe cyo kuyicukura. Iki kidasari kiba kiremereye cyane. Aha twavuga nk’urugero ikitwa  Deepwater Horizon cyo muri Amerika ahitwa Louisiana, hamwe haherutse kuvugwa ko habaye impanuka m’ubucukuzi bwa peteroli yo mu mazi bwanahitanye ubuzima bw’inyamaswa zitari nke, ndetse utibagiwe n’igihombo cy’amafaranga menshi. Iki kidasari kikaba gipima ibiro bigera kuri toni 100 zose .

Iki kidasari bacyubakira hejuru y’aho bazacukura cyangwa bakacyubakira kubutaka maze hanyuma bakagikuruza ubwato bakakijyanayo. Gucukura peteroli yo mu mazi rero ngo bikaba bihenda cyane ugereranije no gucukura peteroli ku butaka.

Ya matiyo rero twavuze haruguru, yoherezwa mu kuzimu haba ku butaka busanzwe cyamgwa munsi y’amazi. Aya matiyo kandi  ni nayo peteroli ikuruwe mu kuzimu izamukiramo maze ikagera mu bikono binini byagenewe kuyakira. Akenshi rero ngo ibi bikono biba bikoze ku buryo  ari nabyo bahita bayitunganyirizamo.

Peteroli itunganywa ite ?

Essence cyangwa mazutu dukoresha mu ma modoka  ndetse n΄ibindi , ni bimwe mubyo dukenera mu buzima bwacu bwa buri munsi, bikomoka kuri peteroli. Ibi byose biba byatunganirijwe mu nganda zabugenewe kugira ngo tubibone uko tubikoresha bimeze. Ntabwo peteroli icukurwa ngo ikoreshwa ako kanya.

Impamvu peteroli rero itajya icukurwa mu butaka ngo bahite bayikoresha ni uko iba atari peteroli gusa nkuko tuba tuyikeneye, ahubwo iba ivanze n’ibindi bintu byinshi. Ikindi kandi nta mashine n’imwe yabasha kwakira urwo ruvange ngo ihihite irukoresha uko rumeze rudatunganyijwe. Uretse n’ibyo kandi, Peteroli yacukuwe mu butaka igera mu gikono kiyakira ari uruvange rw’uturemangingo twinshi: aha twavuga nk’umucanga, amazi n’ibindi. Haba harimo kandi n’imyuka ndetse n’uturemangingo twangiriza ikirere ndetse n’ubuzima bw’abantu. Ibi byose rero haba hakenewe ko bitandukanywa kugira ngo tubonemo  peteroli gusa. Mu by’ukuri rero buri kirombe cya peteroli, bitewe n’amateka y’aho kibarizwa kiba kisangije uburyo peteroli irimo iteye bitandikanye n’ibindi birombe .

Hari ibirombe usanga iyi peteroli ifite ibara ry’umukara kandi ari ikigote cyane (iyi peteroli iba iremereye ari nako igoye mu kuyitunganya). Ahandi ugasanga isa nk’ ikijuju kandi itanaremereye cyane ari nay o bavuga ko ikarishye. Izi peteroli zose rero ziba zirimo uturemangigo twa soufre ndetse na acide. Utu turemangingo twangiriza ibyuma cyane. Nta cyuma na kimwe rero gishobora gukoreshwamo peteroli imeze ityo. Iyi niyo mpamvu peteroli dukoresha igomba gutunganywa cyane cyane mu turemangingo twayo (les composants), maze igatunganywa ku buryo ibasha gukoreshwa nta kibazo. Uku kuyitunganya rero bikorerwa mu nganda zabugenewe.

Dore uko batunganya iyo mvange y’uturemangingo tutananganya ubusharire kugira ngo babone peteroli.

Babishyuhiriza mu gikono gifunze hose noneho rwa ruvange rukagenda ruhinduka umwuka buhoro buhoro. Uturemangingo rero dutandukanye niko tugenda duhinduka umwuka, tumwe mbere y’utundi bitewe n’ubusharire bwatwo mbere y’uko peteroli yose itogota. Aha naguha urugero rw’isafuriya yuzuye amazi iteretse ku muriro aho hatangira kuza twa tubumbe duto tumeze nk’urufuro ku ndiba y’isafuriya mbere y’uko amazi yatura kuri dogere 100: Iriya iba ari imyuka iri muri ayo mazi iba irimo kuvamo. Iyo myuka kandi ntiviramo rimwe,kuko nayo iba itanganya ubusharire. Buri mwuka uri mu mazi uba ufite ikigero cy’ubushyuhe uvira mu mazi. Noneho rero nyuma amazi akabona kubira cyane ariko anagenda akama mu isafuriya. Iyo akamyemo neza usanga ku ndiba y’isafuriya hari utuntu twahasigaye tw’umweru.

Ni umunyu kuko wo bisaba kuwucaniira ku bushyuhe bunini burenze dogre 100 kugira ngo na wo ugende uhinduka umwuka. Ubu bushyuhe bukaba burenze ubwo dukoresha duteka cyangwa ubusyuhe butuma amazi abira ari bwo za dogere 100 navuze haruguru, ni imyunyu.

Kuri peteroli naho ni cyo kimwe n’ibyo. Gusa yo bayicaniira ku bushyuhe burenze ubw’amazi.

Mbere re kubona peteroli rero nk’uko byifuzwa ibikorwa by’ingenzi bayikorera muri kwa kuyicaniira biri mu byiciro bitatu :

-Icya mbere ni uGutandukanya peteroli n’ibindi bintu biba byayivanzemo mu icukurwa. Uku gutandukanya peteroli n’ibindi, bikorwa mu buryo bwo kuyiminina bwimbitse. Peteroli ishyirwa mugikono kirekire gihagaze (mbese kimeze nk’umunara).Uburebure bwa cyo bukaba bugera kuri metero 60 z’ubujyahejuru (iki gikono kitwa  «colone de distillation atmospherique »mu rurimi rw’igifaransa). Aha iyi peteroli iba yacaniriwe kugera kuri dogere 350/400 °C. Igice kinini cyayo rero gihita gihinduka umwuka nk’uko twabibonye, Maze wa mwuka ugatangira kuzamuka ugana hejuru muri cya gikono kifuze, dore ko kiba kituzuye ku buryo kiba kirimo umwanya munini urimo ubusa. Hasi hagasigara ibisigazwa biremereye bitabasha kuzamuka hejuru ku bushyuhe bwa dogere 400 gusa. Uko wa mwuka wa peteroli uzamuka ni nako ubushyuhe bugabanuka kuko umuriro uba uri guturuka hasi. Ni ukuvuga ko ku ndiba ya cya gikono haba hashyushye cyane kurusha ku gasongero ka cyo.

-Igikorwa cya kabiri nyuma yo kuyitandukanya n’ibyo twakwita imyanda ni uKuyihindurira kamere kugira ngo ihabwe kamere y’iyo dukeneye twe nk’abantu gukoresha, nk’uko tuyisanga ku masoko. Bitewe n’uturemangingo twinshi tuba tugize urwo ruvange rw’umwuka wa ya peteroli ibice bimwe byawo bigenda byitsindagira bikaremera bityo bigahinduka amazi uko uzamuka muri cya gikono kirekire kimeze nk’umunara. Kugera hejuru ku gasongero ka wa munara aho ubushyuhe buba buri kuri dogere 150 °C. Aha ho haboneka umwuka wanyuma bitashobotse ko uhinduka amazi: les gaz de pétrole. Uyu ukaba ari umwuka bakoresha mu gucana mu zindi nganda,four de raffinerie mu gifaransa, cyangwa bakawukoresha mu bundi bushakashatsi.

– igikorwa cya nyuma rero ni uKuyivugurura. Aha bayikuramo uturemangingo tutari ngombwa mw’ikoreshwa ryayo ndetse hakaba n’uturi ngombwa  bakahindurira kamere kugira ngo ya peteroli tuyibone imeze nk’uko tuyisanga ku isoko nta busembwa. Aha ndetse ntitwanakwirengagiza ko hari naho bongeramo utundi turemangingo aho bibaye ngombwa

 

Rwanda | iki ni kimwe mu bikono bayungururiramo peteroli

iki ni kimwe mu bikono bayungururiramo peteroli

Amoko yose ya peteroli aba yabonetse mu iminina aba agomba gukurwamo tumwe mu turemangingo tuyigize tuba ari uburozi ku buzima bw’umuntu. Banayikuramo kandi uturemangingo twangiza ibidukikije, cyane cyane akaremangingo kitwa Soufre. Igikorw kindi kigoranye cyane!

Nko gukura soufre muri mazutu bikorerwa ku bushyuhe bungana na dogere 370 °C, mu gikono kirimo umwuka witwa Hydrogene ufite ubwitsindagire bungana na 60 (pression de 60bars). Bya byuka bya soufre bivamo bikihuza na wa mwuka wundi wa  hydrogène maze bikabyara ibyotsi by ’umuhondo. Ibi byotsi kandi biba bishobora no guhinduka amazi iyo bibaye byinshi.

 

Kubera ububi bw’uriya mwuka wa soufre, kuva ku itariki ya mbere Mutarama mu mwaka w’2005, mu Burayi hashyizweho itegeko rikakaye ribuza kohereza mu kirere biriya byuka bya soufre. Iryo tegeko risaba ko  hatunganywa ibyumba byo kwerekezamo iriya soufre ku nganda zose zicukura zikanatunganya peteroli. Ariko nyine byumvikane neza ko itegeko ritashyirwaho ngo rihite rishyirwa mu bikorwa umunsi umwe. Ryagiye rishyirwa mu bikorwa buhorobuhoro.

Ku rundi ruhande ariko, iki gikorwa cyo gukuramo uriya mwuka wa soufre, gituma hari bimwe mubikomoka kuri peteroli bigira ubundi busembwa. Aha twavuga nka essence cyangwa mazutu, aho iki gikarwa cyo gukuramo soufre gituma igihe moteur iyikoresha,  ihinda bigacishamo bigaturika. Aha iyi petroli iba yagabanutse mo uturemangingo twitwa Octane tuyibuza guturika. Ibi bisaba rero kongeera iyo octane nyine kugira ngo ayo mavuta akoreshwe nta kibazo. Iki gikorwa kitwa: le reformage catalytique mu gifaransa.

Ku byerekeye no gukuramo imyuka ihumanya ya soufre kandi rero wazirikana ko ama gaz akomoka kuri peteroli nka gaz butane, ndetse n’ibindi nka propane na kerosene(iyi ari na yo ya peteroli ducana mu itara) na zo zikurwamo soufre  kuko mugihe idakuwemo iragenda ikajya mu mwanya wa oxygène. Uyu ni wa  mwuka duhumeka. Ibi byose ariko bikorwa mu bwitonzi n’umutuzo bihambaye, kuko bimenetse byakwangiriza byinshi na benshi.

Rwanda | Aha ni hamwe mu hakurirwamo imyuka ya soufre i Anvers (mu Bubirigi).

Aha ni hamwe mu hakurirwamo imyuka ya soufre i Anvers (mu Bubirigi).

N’ubwo wumva ko umwuka wa soufre ari mubi, na wo ukoreshwa mu nganda zikora ibintu bya plastike, nk’amapine , chambre a air, udukingirizo  ndetse n’ibindi bikoresho mu ukongera ubureguke bwabyo (elasticité).

Ngira ngo wabonye ko hari ibisigazwa bitabasha guhinduku umwuka igihe bacanira peteroli. Biriya na byo, biba byasigaye hasi byanze guhinduka umwuka, barabicanira cyane by’umwihariko mu kindi gikono na cyo kimeze nk’umunara noneho gihurutuye kitarimo uduce nk’icyambere. Gusa ho umwuka ubivuyemo ntago uba ukarishye kuko ku mwanya wa mbere ubyara Gazoil ariyo Mazutu mu kinyarwanda. Iki gikorwa ariko nikimaramo bya bisigazwa byose kuko hanyuma hagasigara ibindi bisigazwa hasi muri cya gikono.

Kandi rero usanga kugira ngo ibisigazwa nk’ibi noneho bitungane neza bisaba kongeramo ibindi birungo. Aha twavuga nk’umwuka wa Hydrogène bongeramo, maze bya bisigazwa byari byanze kubyara peteroli bigakunda. Ariko ubu buryo ngo busaba amafaranga yisumbuyeho ndetse utibagiwe n’ingufu z’amashanyarazi zirenze.

Nguko uko hakorwa ibikoresho byose bikomoka kuri peteroli kuva kuri goudron bakoresha umuhanda (dore ko na yo burya ikomoka kuri peteroli) kugera kuri wa mwuka utahindutse amazi. Tubikesha dukuzumuremyi Noel


 

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